Enrofloxacin is a veterinary drug for the treatment of diseases of bacterial etiology. In other words, it is an antibiotic for animals, and not only for such common pets as cats and dogs. Enrofloxacin is a third generation fluoroquinolone. It has a wide spectrum of antibacterial action, due to which it is used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. Enrofloxacin is active against most gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, incl. Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Haemophilus spp., Klebsiella spp., Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Bordetella spp., Campylobacter spp., Erysipelothrix spp., Corynebacterium spp., Stappoco , Streptococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp., Clostridium spp., Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., and Mycoplasma spp. Enrofloxacin is effective against microorganisms resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, tetracyclines, macrolides and aminoglycosides. Enrofloxacin is not recommended for the treatment of streptococcal infections because its activity against them is variable. Of great concern is the emergence of bacterial isolates resistant to enrofloxacin of such microorganisms as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Acinetobacter and Enterococci.
This drug was synthesized in 1980, and since 1988 it has been actively used in veterinary medicine. One of the most important actions of Enrofloxacin is the effective destruction of bacteria of the genus Leptospira in the body of animals. Leptospirosis is considered a resurgent bacterial zoonosis, the most widespread worldwide. This disease affects most mammals and humans. Enrofloxacin is not the first antibiotic chosen as the lead drug for leptospirosis, but it is showing the most encouraging results so far.
This anbitiotic inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase, disrupts DNA synthesis, growth and division of bacteria. After taking this drug, pronounced morphological changes in the cell wall and membranes quickly begin to be observed, which leads to the rapid death of the bacterial cell. It is noteworthy that Enrofloxacin has a bactericidal effect on gram-negative microorganisms during the period of rest and cell division, and on gram-positive microorganisms only during the period of cell division.
The most common of the veterinary drugs containing Enrofloxacin as an active ingredient is Baytril, manufactured by the German pharmaceutical company Bayer. This drug is actively used in the practice of veterinarians and shows effective work against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria that cause various infectious diseases of the respiratory system, digestive tract, in the treatment of genitourinary infections, salmonellosis, septicemia, in the treatment of secondary microflora during the course of viral diseases. Enrofloxacin is widely used in the treatment of small domestic animals (usually cats and dogs), as well as in agriculture for cattle, pigs, birds and other animals. Baytril is available as an injection solution and as oral tablets.
Enrofloxacin and its over versions sold under the names Enrofloxacin, Enroflon, Enroxil and Enrofloxacin-Vet are affordable generics of this antibiotic with a convenient once-a-day broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone tested and proven bioequivalent to Bayrocin in dogs and cats. A 10-tablets pack of branded Bayrocin (manufactured by Buyer) costs about $43, while generic versions are available at the price of $8 to $20, depending on the specific manufacturer. Indian pharmaceutical companies produce the cheapest options.
Enrofloxacin for Dogs
It is dog owners of all pet lovers who resort to the help of Enrofloxacin. For the treatment of the most faithful human’s pets, Enrofcloxacin (Bairocin) can be used in the form of a solution for subcutaneous injections (with an active substance content of 10%), and in the form of tablets (dosage of 50 mg). Tablets are more commonly prescribed by veterinarians, but some dog owners find it easier to give their pet a subcutaneous injection than to try to feed them pills, even though they have a meaty taste that appeals to dogs.
Enrofcloxacin is not used in puppies younger than 12 months (in puppies of large breeds – younger than 18 months), as well as in animals with significant disorders in the development of cartilage tissue and lesions of the central nervous system, accompanied by convulsions.
Enrofloxacin tablets are administered orally to dogs and cats individually in crushed form mixed with food or forcibly placed on the root of the tongue at a daily dose of 5 mg of enrofloxacin per 1 kg of animal weight. Accordingly, the dose can be calculated as follows:
- one tablet weighing 0.055 g (15 mg of enrofloxacin) per 3 kg of animal weight
- one tablet weighing 0.183 g (50 mg of enrofloxacin) per 10 kg of animal weight
- one tablet weighing 0.55 g (150 mg of enrofloxacin) per 30 kg of animal weight
To achieve a more uniform level of drug content in the body of a furry patient, the daily dose of the drug can be divided into two doses. The duration of the course of treatment is 5-10 days, depending on the recommendation of the veterinarian.
Enrofloxacin for Cats
For cats, Enrofloxacin is applied mostly subcutaneously at a dose of 0.1 ml of the drug per 1 kg of body weight once a day for 5 days. Tablet form is also suitable. Enrofloxacin is not used for kittens in the first 8 months of life. Avoid skipping the next dose of the drug, as this may lead to a decrease in therapeutic efficacy. If one dose is missed, the drug is resumed at the same dosage and according to the same scheme. The drug is used to treat diseases of the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary system, infections of soft tissues and otitis, infected wounds and other diseases of bacterial and mycoplasmal etiology, the pathogens of which are sensitive to Enrofloxacin.
When used in the form of tablets, Enrofloxacin is well absorbed, bioavailability reaches about 80%. The peak concentration is observed approximately an hour after administration. The antibiotic is distributed throughout the body, but only 27% of the drug is bound to plasma proteins. Large concentrations of the drug penetrate into the tissues of the hepatobiliary and reproductive systems, kidneys and lungs. Therapeutic doses reach bones, synovia, muscles, skin, and pleural fluid. Small concentrations penetrate the central nervous system.
When injecting a cat, it is most convenient to hold it by the collar, while minimizing the possibility that the animal will injure the owner, as it becomes practically immobilized.
Enrofloxacin Side Effects
When Enrofloxacin is used in accordance with the instructions, animals usually don’t experience pronounced side effects and complications. In the event of allergic reactions, the use of the drug is stopped and antihistamine and symptomatic drugs are prescribed to the animal.
In case of an overdose of the drug, the animal may experience a decrease in appetite, depression, vomiting, diarrhea. In this case, the drug should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be carried out.
Features of the action of the drug during its first use and cancellation have not been established.
Avoid skipping the next dose of the drug, as this may lead to a decrease in therapeutic efficacy. If one dose is missed, the drug is resumed at the same dosage and according to the same scheme.
Enrofloxacin should not be used simultaneously with chloramphenicol, macrolides, theophylline, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as with drugs containing iron, calcium, magnesium, aluminum cations that impair the absorption of drugs in the gastrointestinal tract.
Enrofloxacin for Birds
Enrofloxacin is used only for the treatment of chicks of domestic and wild birds (caged as pets). This antibacterial drug with a wide spectrum of action is intended for the treatment of mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, and chronic respiratory diseases in birds.
Enrofloxacin for Chickens
Enrofloxacin is the most popular drug for the treatment of many diseases in poultry chicks. The action of Enrofloxacin is aimed at maximizing the cure of chicks and is effectively used in diseases such as mycoplasmosis, colibacillosis, pasteurellosis, hemophilia, infectious rhinitis, necrotic enteritis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis hepatitis, streptococcosis, as well as mixed and secondary infections.
In the treatment of chicks, Enrofloxacin is used exclusively by the oral route, that is, it must be administered orally through the mouth of the chicks. This drug begins to act after a few hours from the moment it enters the gastrointestinal tract of the bird. It is most convenient to use Enrofloxacin by diluting it in water in certain proportions. Next, the solution is poured into a drinking bowl and put to the birds instead of ordinary water for round-the-clock drinking. Treatment continues for five to six days.
The solution must be prepared every day based on an approximate calculation of the daily water consumption of the chicks. During the entire treatment period, the chicks should be provided only with water with the addition of a drug at the rate of 5 mg of the drug per 10 liters of water.
The medicine is suitable for goslings, turkeys, ducklings, chickens and other poultry. Important! If you are faced with the need to treat wild bird chicks, be sure to check the dosage with a wild bird ornithologist, because their bodies are much more delicate, and it may be necessary to reduce the concentration of the drug. In the treatment of chronic salmonellosis, mixed infections and severe cases of viral diseases, the dose of Enrofloxacin for poultry chicks can be increased to 100 ml per 100 liters of water. Poultry slaughter is allowed only 10-15 days after the use of this drug. Earlier slaughter is strictly prohibited due to the fact that the antibiotic will not have time to be excreted from the body of the bird.
Enrofloxacin for Rats
Decorative rats during their lives often fall ill with infectious and non-contagious diseases, which, due to the accelerated metabolism of rodents, are characterized by a rapid course, the development of irreversible consequences, and often the death of a pet. In rats, Enrofloxacin (Bairocin) is used for respiratory, digestive, genitourinary, and secondary infections. Analogues of this medication (generics) are Enroflon, Enroxil, Enrofloxacin-Vet and some others.
Enrofloxacin is effective against many diseases in rats. The dosage of Enrofloxacin for domestic rats is 10 mg/kg. Therefore, the drug dose for a 500 g rodent (average weight of an adult rat) is 6 mg. The amount of Bayrocin 2.5% solution for a single injection is 0.24 ml. It is most convenient to draw 0.2 ml of the drug into the insulin syringe.
At the same time, one should not forget that the selection of antibiotics for rats should be carried out after determining the sensitivity of the causative agent of the disease to the drug by inoculation on nutrient media.